Epigenetic modifications of the genome, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, have been reported to play a role in processes underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD), including atherosclerosis, inflammation, hypertension and diabetes. Evidence from a recent systematic review by Muka et al. supports this association between genomic DNA methylation and CVD. However, it also highlights important gaps in the existing evidences including lack of large-scale epigenetic investigations, needed to reliably identify genomic loci where DNA methylation is related to risk of CVD.
Another systematic review studied the role of estrogen receptor β actions in the female cardiovascular system and the influence of age and menopause on estrogen receptor β functioning. ERβ seems to possess multiple functions in the female cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether isoform-selective ERβ-ligands might contribute to cardiovascular disease prevention.